Pesticide Exposure Linked to Increased Risk of Autism

Pesticide Exposure Linked to Increased Risk of Autism

 

In the same week a US Court found that glyphosate was a “significant factor” in another case of cancer (with a further 11,000 cases waiting to be heard), the BMJ has published a new study that shows exposure to common pesticides in-utero and during infancy is linked to an increased risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Autism Spectrum Disorder comprises severe developmental disorders characterised by atypical socialisation, and restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests.  It is the fastest-growing neurological condition in the world.  ASD affects as many as 1 in 27 children in developed countries, primarily males.  Although there’s a strong genetic link, unfortunately there has been little research into the environmental factors that may affect genetic expression.  There is some evidence of prenatal exposure to several types of pesticides leading to impaired neurological development, with organophosphates and organochlorines most stongly linked to the development of ASD. 

Based on the existing research, the authors undertook this large population based case-controlled study based on a cohort of 2961 individuals diagnosed with ASD based on criteria described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version IV-R who were born in California’s agricultural Central Valley region between 1998-2010.  Of those, 445 had intellectual disability comorbidity.  The 35,370 controls were matched by sex & birth year, then by comparable exposure periods (total participants = 38,331).

California has compulsory Pesticide Use Reporting (CA-PUR), so the authors cross-referenced the usage of 11 common pesticides per month within 2000m of the maternal residence, with confirmed ASD cases.  The pesticides analysed were glyphosate, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, acephate, malathion, permethrin, bifenthrin, methyl bromide, imidacloprid, avermectin, and myclobutanil with ‘exposure’ defined as ‘any vs none’ to each substance during specific developmental periods.

The study compared data from 3 months prior to conception (this would also cover paternal exposure as sperm take an average of 72 days to mature) right through to 12 months postpartum. It was shown that the most crucial times for neurological development were during pregnancy and in the first 12 months of like (exposure pre-conception had a weaker correlation).  Prenatal exposure to the chemicals in this study showed a 10-20% increase in the risk of the child developing ASD.  For ASD with intellectual disability, the odds were around 30% higher, with chemical exposure in the first year of life increasing the risk of ASD with comorbid intellectual disability by up to 50% for some substances. Milder forms of ASD including Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders were excluded from the study, so the results may not reflect the true risks of these chemicals.

The biggest risk factor for the development of ASD, particularly with intellectual disability, was exposure to glyphosate primarily from birth to 12 months old, but also during pregnancy.  Other high-risk substances include chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin (all 3 are insecticides), methyl bromide (multi-use insecticide), and myclobutanil (fungicide).

Although the study does not look at how these substances increase the risk of ASD, research on the gut microbiome & neurological function suggests that gut health is the link.  Indeed, a large number of people with ASD (up to 91%) have an abnormal microbial balance. Glyphosate is patented as an antibiotic, which are designed to kill bacteria. Over 93% of those with ASD have been found to have genetic mutations affecting carbohydrate metabolism, which may also affect the microbial balance and in turn, the production of neurotransmitters.  Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff have a series of research papers discussing the various ways glyphosate integrates with our physiology to affect our health.  

Whilst there may be many different triggers for ASD, there is definitely more research needed into the health effects of agricultural chemicals.  This study supports the premise that we need to reduce chemical exposure during pregnancy & infancy to protect early brain development.  Choose organic food, personal care items (for you & baby), cosmetics and household products whenever possible.  Grow your own food, get to know the producers at your local Farmer’s Market or shop online for safer, GM-free products.  Lactic acid fermentation has been shown to speed up the degradation of some pesticide residues, so fermenting grains & vegetables is an effective way of reducing chemical exposure whilst improving the gut microbiome.  Also, look for a water filter that removes PBT’s (persistent bioaccumulative toxicants) and consider a detox for both parents at least 4 months before planned conception to minimise the toxic load on the foetus & optimise genetic health.  Many of these substances remain on our food, in our soil & in the water supplies, so the chance of exposure is high, even if you don’t live within 2km of properties where they’re used.  

 

Pesticide Exposure Linked to Increased Risk of Autism | www.unitywellness.com.au

 

Resources:

  1. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/breaking-roundup-weed-killer-contributed-ca-mans-cancer-100s-billions-future-liab
  2. https://www.bmj.com/content/364/bmj.l962.short
  3. https://www.bmj.com/content/364/bmj.l1149
  4. http://www.autism-society.org/what-is/facts-and-statistics/
  5. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html
  6. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4430.0Main%20Features752015
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25883837
  8. http://www.tonu.org/2016/11/05/glyphosate-glycine/
  9. https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/4/1416/htm
  10. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0024585
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23879636

 

MEDICAL DISCLAIMER

Unity Wellness provides health-related information to assist people in making their own choices.  While we have exercised due care to ensure the accuracy of the information on this site, it is not intended to be used as medical advice and it is not intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professional’s advice.  Unity Wellness does not accept any liability for any injury, loss or damage incurred by use of or reliance on the information provided on this website.

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This post/site may contain Affiliate links or links to my Independent Advocate store. By clicking these links, you pay no more for the products/services, but I will receive a commission on purchases to keep this site running & support my family (thank you!).  I will never promote any products or services that I would not be happy to use myself.

This website is owned and operated by an independent InnerOrigin Advocate and is not endorsed by InnerOrigin Pty Ltd or InnerOrigin Australia Pty Ltd or any of their respective associated companies. Any opinions expressed on this website are made by, and are the responsibility of, the individual Advocate and should not be construed as a representation of the opinions of InnerOrigin Pty Ltd, InnerOrigin Australia Pty Ltd or any of their associated companies.

Early Feeding Choices for Infant Gut Health

Early Feeding Choices for Infant Gut Health

There’s no denying that breast milk is the gold standard for human nutrition.  In pre-term babies particularly, breast milk has been associated with improved growth and cognitive development, as well as a reduced risk of serious bowel infections and sepsis.

In cases where the mother is unable to breastfeed, what is the next best option to ensure a healthy gut microbiome in the child that will have far-reaching effects on their overall health?

In the last few years, I’ve noticed an increasing number of expectant first-time Mums asking for baby formula recommendations so they can stock up “just in case”.  Whilst I completely understand the drive to prepare for all eventualities when you’re having your first baby, it saddens me to think that women don’t realise there’s an intermediate option – donor human breast milk.

A study just published in the Frontiers of Microbiology journal compared the gut microbiota of 69 preterm infants in NICU fed either their mother’s own milk (MOM), pasteurised donor human milk (DHM) or formula, to understand the differences in resulting gut microbiota and the potential biological implications.

Faecal samples were collected and the microbiota composition was analysed through rRNA sequencing.  After controlling for other factors, the diversity of gut microbiota increased over time and was constantly higher in infants fed MOM relative to infants with other feeding types. The microbial profile of formula-fed infants was distinct from those observed in MOM and DHM, suggesting that DHM favors an intestinal microbiome more similar to MOM despite the differences between MOM and DHM.  DHM has a slightly different composition to MOM relative to the age of the child as women donating milk tend to be feeding older babies and differences in nutritional intake amongst donors can vary, which is offset somewhat by milk pooling – combining milk from several donors. Pasteurization of DHM also causes changes to the microbial balance, enzymes & proteins in the milk. In general though, only minor differences were observed in the functional profiles between MOM and DHM, suggesting the potential effect of DHM in mimicking the microbiome functionality of own maternal milk feeding.

In conclusion, DHM favors an intestinal microbiome more similar to MOM than Formula despite the differences between MOM and DHM. This may have potential beneficial long-term effects on intestinal functionality, immune system, and metabolic activities.

This would be of particular importance to infants born by Caesarian section who would not receive the same exposure to the mother’s vaginal microbiome as those born naturally.  In some cases, seeding takes place, where a gauze that’s been placed in the mother’s vagina is wiped over the baby & around their mouth to simulate the transfer of bacteria that occurs in vaginal birth to prime the infant’s immune system.

More research needs to be done to understand the long-term implications of feeding type, but that raises ethical issues around feeding one group an option known to be inferior.

Some people find it difficult to access sufficient donor milk as not all locations have milk banks and preference is given to babies most at risk.  It is worth exploring community donor schemes such as Eats on Feets or Human Milk 4 Human Babies.  These groups connect donors & recipients, but do not handle the milk or involve themselves in the arrangements.  The milk is unlikely to be pasteurised, although that means less damaged by heat, but it is up to you to screen the donors to ensure you feel safe with the milk they provide.

Mother’s own milk will always be the optimal choice, with the interaction between the microbiomes of the mother-child dyad informing the mother’s body of what the baby needs at any given moment to adapt to the environment they live in.  It is so important for the mother to have support around her that allows the time, space, hydration & nutrition she needs for proper lactation.  If there are issues feeding, seek the advice of a midwife or lactation consultant & have the baby checked for tongue &/or lip ties.

The next-best option is human donor milk, then milk from other species as a last resort.  I want to clarify that I am not saying that to judge or berate anyone for the way they feed their baby, but with human health declining & chronic illness rising, I think it is important to give consideration to the evidence available to maximize the health of our children and reverse the disease trends.  After all, the contents of our bowels that could get us out of this crap!

 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

Front. Microbiol., 27 June 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01376

MEDICAL DISCLAIMER

Unity Wellness provides health-related information to assist people in making their own choices.  While we have exercised due care to ensure the accuracy of the information on this site, it is not intended to be used as medical advice and it is not intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professional’s advice.  Unity Wellness does not accept any liability for any injury, loss or damage incurred by use of or reliance on the information provided on this website.

AFFILIATE LINKS

This post/site may contain Affliate links or links to my Independent Advocate store. By clicking these links, you pay no more for the products/services, but I will receive a commission on purchases to keep this site running & support my family (thank you!).  I will never promote any products or services that I would not be happy to use myself.

This website is owned and operated by an independent InnerOrigin Advocate and is not endorsed by InnerOrigin Pty Ltd or InnerOrigin Australia Pty Ltd or any of their respective associated companies. Any opinions expressed on this website are made by, and are the responsibility of, the individual Advocate and should not be construed as a representation of the opinions of InnerOrigin Pty Ltd, InnerOrigin Australia Pty Ltd or any of their associated companies.